Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers
While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals
and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine
hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and
vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others.
The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream
databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were
included if the abstract was available in English.
A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among
HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9%
were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and
safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines
to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported.
In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of
vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with
time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or
training support to address parents’ questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly
evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse
vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities
and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine
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