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Vaccine Safety Communication eLibrary

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  1. This is a compliation of field guides developed to support communication planners and programme implementers in their communications around human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination introduction, planning, roll out, and monitoring. They are the result of a collaboration between the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), GAVI, the World Health Organization (WHO), PATH, Girl Effect, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI), Jhpiego, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, American Cancer Society, and PCI Media. Field Guide - HPV Message Framework Field Guide - Interpersonal Communication for HPV Field Guide - HPV Vaccination Branding Field Guide - Digital Dialogue for HPV Vaccination Field Guide - HPV Risk and Crisis Management and more. Global HPV Communication Website for HPV Vaccination Promotion
  2. Laura Brennan was diagnosed with terminal cervical cancer in 2016. Following her diagnosis, she worked tirelessly to help others avoid this devastating disease by telling her story and spreading the facts about HPV and the vaccine that can prevent it. Laura passed away in March 2019 at age 26, but her message lives on.
  3. Promote the importance of immunizations with this communications toolkit This toolkit was created to promote the importance of immunizations during National Immunization Awareness Month (NIAM), which occurs every August. We encourage you to use the valuable resources in this toolkit throughout the year. The 2018 edition of the toolkit contains key messages, vaccine information, sample news releases and articles, sample social media messages, links to web resources from CDC and other organizations, and logos, web banners, posters and graphics to use with social media. It also includes a media outreach toolkit and a place for you to share your NIAM activities and view what other are doing for NIAM. (#NIAM18) Use the toolkit to design your own promotions. Mix and match, copy or adapt the contents to fit the particular news and issues of your own organization or community - and share your NIAM activities to inspire others. For more information, please contact Tom Schafer at tschafer@nphic.org The National Public Health Information Coalition is the premier network of public health communicators in the United States and U.S. territories. They are committed to "making public health public" by sharing our knowledge, expertise and resources to effectively communicate about the important health issues of the day.
  4. World Hepatitis Day (WHD) takes places every year on 28 July bringing the world together under a single theme to raise awareness of the global burden of viral hepatitis and to influence real change. This site is a WHD website, with shareble information and resources.
  5. La campaña de vacunación antigripal se pone en marcha, cada año, en el mes de octubre. Esto ocurre así en todos los países del hemisferio norte. Y también, como cada año, las autoridades sanitarias y profesionales expresan su preocupación por las coberturas insuficientes que se alcanzan, que quedan lejos de los objetivos que establece la OMS.
  6. A home for the WHO Europe's 'European Immunization Week' campaign. In addition to the upcoming EIW, the page contains info and links to previous years' campaigns and materials.
  7. WHO's page on World Immunization Week with archives to past campaigns and materials
  8. WHO's global page on vaccine safety with links to: Global Vaccine Safety Global Vaccine Safety Initiative Detection Investigation Communication Tools and methods Regulatory framework Technical support and trainings Global analysis and response Public-private information exchange Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety Reference documents and publications In 2011, WHO and a group of partners developed a strategic document on vaccine safety called the Global Vaccine Safety Blueprint. This document sets out indicators that aim to ensure that all countries have at least a minimal capacity to ensure vaccine safety. The Blueprint proposes a strategic plan for strengthening vaccine safety activities globally. It focuses on building national capacity for vaccine safety in the world’s poorest countries through the coordinated efforts of major stakeholders.
  9. The VACCINATION online course was developed by SBIm in partnership with the Brazilian Ministry of Health for health professionals who work in Brazil public and private vaccination services. To date, more than 130,000 professionals started the course. Divided into modules, the course has duration of 80 hours and can be accessed until 31/12/2018. Certificate is provided for those with at least 75% share and minimum average in 70%. The main topics discussed are: vaccines and recommendations; Cold chain; Vaccination techniques; Vaccination routines.
  10. WHO Europe Flu Awareness campaign materials from 2017. Available in English and Russian. Poster - Protect yourself and your patients from influenza Poster - Influenza can be serious if you have a health problem Poster - Influenza can be serious if you are over 65 Poster - Influenza can be serious for you and your unborn child Leaflet - Protect yourself and your patients from influenza Leaflet - Influenza can be serious if you have a health problem Leaflet - Influenza can be serious if you are over 65 Leaflet - Influenza can be serious for you and your unborn child Download the full package of Flu Awareness Campaign 2017
  11. Vaccine Volume 36, Issue 35, 23 August 2018, Pages 5273-5281 Measuring vaccine hesitancy: Field testing the WHO SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy survey tool in Guatemala Author links open overlay panelGretchen J.DomekabSean T.O'LearyacSheanaBullbdMichaelBronsertbcIngrid L.Contreras-RoldaneGuillermo AntonioBolaños VenturafAllisonKempeacEdwin J.Asturiasabg https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.07.046Get rights and content Under a Creative Commons license open access Highlights • The Vaccine Hesitancy Survey (VHS) was field tested in urban and rural Guatemala. • Vaccine shortages and access in LMICs are important structural issues to consider. • Participants had difficulty understanding and using the Likert scale format. • Factor analysis showed a two-factor structure within the VHS Likert scale items. • More work is needed to refine this survey for improved global utility.
  12. Publication date: 15 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 43 Author(s): Anita Verma, Drusilla L. Burns Abstract Development of recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccines has been hindered by a lack of stability of the vaccines associated with spontaneous deamidation of asparagine (Asn) residues of the rPA antigen during storage. In this study, we explored the role that two deamidation-prone Asn residues located directly adjacent to the receptor binding site of PA, Asn713 and Asn719, play in the stability of rPA-based anthrax vaccines. We modified these residues to glutamine (Gln) and generated rPA(N713Q/N719Q), since Gln would not be expected to deamidate on a time scale relevant to vaccine storage. While wild-type rPA vaccine formulated with aluminum hydroxide lost immunogenicity upon storage, as measured by induction of toxin-neutralizing antibodies in mice, the rPA(N713Q/N719Q) vaccine did not exhibit a significant loss in immunogenicity. This finding suggests that modification of Asn713 and Asn719 of rPA to deamidation-resistant amino acids may improve the stability of rPA-based anthrax vaccines. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  13. Publication date: 15 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 43 Author(s): Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Miria F. Criado, Charles L. Balzli, Lindsay F. Killmaster, Darrell R. Kapczynski, David E. Swayne Abstract Maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with active immunity in young chicks. In highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV)-enzootic countries, broiler chickens typically have MDA to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and H5 HPAIV, and their impact on active immunity from recombinant vectored vaccines is unclear. We assessed the effectiveness of a spray-applied recombinant NDV vaccine with H5 AIV insert (rNDV-H5) and a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine with H5 AIV insert (rHVT-H5) in commercial broilers with MDA to NDV alone (MDA:AIV−NDV+) or to NDV plus AIV (MDA:AIV+NDV+) to provide protection against homologous HPAIV challenge. In Experiment 1, chicks were spray-vaccinated with rNDV-H5 at 3 weeks (3w) and challenged at 5 weeks (5w). All sham-vaccinated progeny lacked AIV antibodies and died following challenge. In rNDV-H5 vaccine groups, AIV and NDV MDA had completely declined to non-detectable levels by vaccination, enabling rNDV-H5 spray vaccine to elicit a protective AIV antibody response by 5w, with 70–78% survival and significant reduction of virus shedding compared to shams. In Experiment 2, progeny were vaccinated with rHVT-H5 and rNDV-H5 at 1 day (1d) or 3w and challenged at 5w. All sham-vaccinated progeny lacked AIV antibodies and died following challenge. In rHVT-H5(1d) vaccine groups, irrespective of rNDV-H5(3w) boost, AIV antibodies reached protective levels pre-challenge, as all progeny survived and virus shedding significantly decreased compared to shams. In contrast, rNDV-H5-vaccinated progeny had AIV and/or NDV MDA at the time of vaccination (1d and/or 3w) and failed to develop a protective immune response by 5w, resulting in 100% mortality after challenge. Our results demonstrate that MDA to AIV had minimal impact on the effectiveness of rHVT-H5, but MDA to AIV and/or NDV at the time of vaccination can prevent development of protective immunity from a primary or booster rNDV-H5 vaccine. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  14. Publication date: 22 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 44 Author(s): Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau, Marianne Promberger, Karis Moon, Ana Wheelock, Miroslav Sirota, Christine Norton, Nick Sevdalis Abstract Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important priority group for vaccination against influenza, yet, flu vaccine uptake remains low among them. Psychosocial studies of HCWs’ decisions to get vaccinated have commonly drawn on subjective expected utility models to assess predictors of vaccination, assuming HCWs’ choices result from a rational information-weighing process. By contrast, we recast those decisions as a commitment to vaccination and we aimed to understand why HCWs may want to (rather than believe they need to) get vaccinated against the flu. This article outlines the development and validation of a 9-item measure of cognitive empowerment towards flu vaccination (MoVac-flu scale) and an 11-item measure of cognitive empowerment towards vaccination advocacy. Both scales were administered to 784 frontline NHS HCWs with direct patient contact between June 2014 and July 2015. The scales exhibited excellent reliability and a clear unidimensional factor structure. An examination of the nomological network of the cognitive empowerment construct in relation to HCWs’ vaccination against the flu revealed that this construct was distinct from traditional measures of risk perception and the strongest predictor of HCWs’ decisions to vaccinate. Similarly, cognitive empowerment in relation to vaccination advocacy was a strong predictor of HCWs’ engagement with vaccination advocacy. These findings suggest that the cognitive empowerment construct has important implications for advancing our understanding of HCWs’ decisions to vaccinate as well as their advocacy behavior. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  15. Publication date: 22 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 44 Author(s): Jessica Kaufman, Rebecca Ryan, Simon Lewin, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Claire Glenton, Julie Cliff, Angela Oyo-Ita, Artur Manuel Muloliwa, Afiong Oku, Heather Ames, Gabriel Rada, Yuri Cartier, Sophie Hill Abstract Background Communication interventions for childhood vaccination are promising strategies to address vaccine hesitancy, but current research is limited by the outcomes measured. Most studies measure only vaccination-related outcomes, with minimal consideration of vaccine hesitancy-relevant intermediate outcomes. This impedes understanding of which interventions or elements are effective. It is also unknown which outcomes are important to the range of stakeholders affected by vaccine hesitancy. Outcome selection shapes the evidence base, informing future interventions and trials, and should reflect stakeholder priorities. Therefore, our aim was to identify which outcome domains (i.e. broad outcome categories) are most important to different stakeholders, identifying preliminary core outcome domains to inform evaluation of three common vaccination communication types: (i) communication to inform or educate, (ii) remind or recall, and (iii) enhance community ownership. Methods We conducted a two-stage online Delphi survey, involving four stakeholder groups: parents or community members, healthcare providers, researchers, and government or non-governmental organisation representatives. Participants rated the importance of eight outcome domains for each of the three communication types. They also rated specific outcomes within one domain (“attitudes or beliefs”) and provided feedback about the survey. Results Collectively, stakeholder groups prioritised outcome domains differently when considering the effects of different communication types. For communication that aims to (i) inform or educate, the most important outcome domain is “knowledge or understanding”; for (ii) reminder communication, “vaccination status and behaviours”; and for (iii) community engagement communication, “community participation”. All stakeholder groups rated most outcome domains as very important or critical. The highest rated specific outcome within the “attitudes or beliefs” domain was “trust”. Conclusion This Delphi survey expands the field of core outcomes research and identifies preliminary core outcome domains for measuring the effects of communication about childhood vaccination. The findings support the argument that vaccination communication is not a single homogenous intervention – it has a range of purposes, and vaccination communication evaluators should select outcomes accordingly. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  16. Publication date: 22 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 44 Author(s): Rachel Démolis, Carlos Botão, Léonard W. Heyerdahl, Bradford D. Gessner, Philippe Cavailler, Celestino Sinai, Amílcar Magaço, Jean-Bernard Le Gargasson, Martin Mengel, Elise Guillermet Abstract Introduction While planning an immunization campaign in settings where public health interventions are subject to politically motivated resistance, designing context-based social mobilization strategies is critical to ensure community acceptability. In preparation for an Oral Cholera Vaccine campaign implemented in Nampula, Mozambique, in November 2016, we assessed potential barriers and levers for vaccine acceptability. Methods Questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions, as well as observations, were conducted before the campaign. The participants included central and district level government informants (national immunization program, logistics officers, public health directors, and others), community leaders and representatives, and community members. Results During previous well chlorination interventions, some government representatives and health agents were attacked, because they were believed to be responsible for spreading cholera instead of purifying the wells. Politically motivated resistance to cholera interventions resurfaced when an OCV campaign was considered. Respondents also reported vaccine hesitancy related to experiences of problems during school-based vaccine introduction, rumors related to vaccine safety, and negative experiences following routine childhood immunization. Despite major suspicions associated with the OCV campaign, respondents’ perceived vulnerability to cholera and its perceived severity seem to override potential anticipated OCV vaccine hesitancy. Discussion Potential hesitancy towards the OCV campaign is grounded in global insecurity, social disequilibrium, and perceived institutional negligence, which reinforces a representation of estrangement from the central government, triggering suspicions on its intentions in implementing the OCV campaign. Recommendations include a strong involvement of community leaders, which is important for successful social mobilization; representatives of different political parties should be equally involved in social mobilization efforts, before and during campaigns; and public health officials should promote other planned interventions to mitigate the lack of trust associated with perceived institutional negligence. Successful past initiatives include public intake of purified water or newly introduced medication by social mobilizers, teachers or credible leaders. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  17. Publication date: 22 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 44 Author(s): Leonard W. Heyerdahl, Bagrey Ngwira, Rachel Demolis, Gabriel Nyirenda, Maurice Mwesawina, Florentina Rafael, Philippe Cavailler, Jean Bernard Le Gargasson, Martin A. Mengel, Bradford D. Gessner, Elise Guillermet Abstract A reactive campaign using two doses of Shanchol Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) was implemented in 2016 in the Lake Chilwa Region (Malawi) targeting fish dependent communities. Three strategies for the second vaccine dose delivery (including delivery by a community leader and self-administration) were used to facilitate vaccine access. This assessment collected vaccine perceptions and opinions about the OCV campaign of 313 study participants, including: fishermen, fish traders, farmers, community leaders, and one health and one NGO officer. Socio-demographic surveys were conducted, In Depth Interviews and Focus Group Discussions were conducted before and during the campaign. Some fishermen perceived the traditional delivery strategy as reliable but less practical. Delivery by traditional leaders was acceptable for some participants while others worried about traditional leaders not being trained to deliver vaccines or beneficiaries taking doses on their own. A slight majority of beneficiaries considered the self-administration strategy practical while some beneficiaries worried about storing vials outside of the cold chain or losing vials. During the campaign, a majority of participants preferred receiving oral vaccines instead of injections given ease of intake and lack of pain. OCV was perceived as efficacious and safe. However, a lack of information on how sero-protection may be delayed and the degree of sero-protection led to loss of trust in vaccine potency among some participants who witnessed cholera cases among vaccinated individuals. OCV campaign implementation requires accompanying communication on protective levels, less than 100% vaccine efficacy, delays in onset of sero-protection, and out of cold chain storage. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  18. Publication date: 22 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 44 Author(s): Angus Thomson, Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau, L. Suzanne Suggs https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  19. This is a web page by the American Academy of Pediatrics with guidance for healthcare providers for communication with vaccine hesitant parents . The page includes: Types of parental immunization attitudes Key points to consider Strategies for Talking to Parents Policies and Resources
  20. Publish Date: July 2018 Author: MCSP The journey toward polio eradication offers 30 years of accumulated learning. This document seeks to share insights and ideas gleaned from the polio program’s success that might inform accelerate action on other development issues. It is the outcome of a February 2018 polio partners meeting focusing on communication and community engagement within the polio program held with representatives from these organizations: USAID MCSP (Maternal and Child Survival Program) CORE Group Polio Project The Communication Initiative John Snow, Inc. UN Foundation
  21. ‘Vaccination is an individual right and a shared responsibility.’ That’s the focus of the 2018 European Immunization Week, organised by the World Health Organization (WHO). Ensuring access to immunisation services is essential to controlling preventable diseases. But why is ‘shared responsibility’ in the spotlight? Central to this idea is the scientific concept of ‘herd immunity’, sometimes called ‘community immunity’. This explains how we can stop the spread of disease by maintaining high levels of immunisation. For example, if 95% of people in a community have two doses of the MMR vaccine, measles outbreaks can be prevented. As some people are too sick or too young to be vaccinated, it is essential that the rest of us play our part in protecting them. To help explain this idea, VaccinesToday collected some of the top YouTube videos on herd immunity.
  22. This 72 page document provides clear answers to many common questions about vaccination. It is designed: • to help parents find out more about vaccines and the most recent evidence about their safety and effectiveness. • to help doctors answer questions from their patients. Questions: Why do we need vaccines? Why do all children need vaccines? Are the diseases we vaccinate against really serious? If the diseases are rarely seen, why do we still need vaccines? Why is ‘community immunity’ important? Do vaccines prevent death? Can our improved standard of living explain the reduction in disease? Why do children get more vaccines now than they did when I was young? Why should I be vaccinated while I’m pregnant? What do vaccines do? How do vaccines work? How well do vaccines work? Can vaccines cause or spread disease? Is immunity from vaccination as good as natural immunity? Can immunity that comes from vaccination wear off? Does the influenza vaccine cause influenza? Do homeopathic vaccines work? Are vaccines safe for my child? What side effects might occur with vaccines? Do vaccines cause or worsen asthma and allergies? Do vaccines cause autoimmune diseases (like type 1 diabetes, Guillain–Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis)? Do vaccines cause seizures? Do vaccines cause sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)? Does the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine cause rare syndromes or problems with fertility or pregnancy? Does the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine cause autism? Does the pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine cause damage to the brain or nervous system? Does the rotavirus vaccine cause intussusception? Can my child be vaccinated and when should they be vaccinated? Can my child still be vaccinated if they have allergies? Can my child still be vaccinated if they have a genetic polymorphism? Are vaccines permitted (kosher) for observant Jewish children? Are vaccines permitted (halal) for observant Muslim children? Is it safe to give my child more than one vaccine at the same time? Can I space out or delay some vaccines given to my child? How are vaccines made and tested? How are vaccines made? What ingredients are in vaccines? Do vaccines contain aluminium or mercury? Are vaccines properly tested and monitored? Are some vaccines made using fetal tissue?
  23. PATH's Vaccine Resource Library (VRL) gathers hundreds of top immunization resources in a single website. The VRL offers high-quality, scientifically accurate materials on specific diseases and topics in immunization addressed by PATH's work.
  24. This document presents the scientific evidence behind WHO’s recommendations on building and restoring confidence in vaccines and vaccination, both in ongoing work and during crises. The evidence draws on a vast reserve of laboratory research and fieldwork within psychology and communication. It examines how people make decisions about vaccination; why some people are hesitant about vaccination; and the factors that drive a crisis, covering how building trust, listening to and understanding people, building relations, communicating risk and shaping messages to the audiences may mitigate crises. This background document is part of the Vaccination and trust library, which includes a series of support documents with practical guidance for specific situations.
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