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  1. La campaña de vacunación antigripal se pone en marcha, cada año, en el mes de octubre. Esto ocurre así en todos los países del hemisferio norte. Y también, como cada año, las autoridades sanitarias y profesionales expresan su preocupación por las coberturas insuficientes que se alcanzan, que quedan lejos de los objetivos que establece la OMS.
  2. A home for the WHO Europe's 'European Immunization Week' campaign. In addition to the upcoming EIW, the page contains info and links to previous years' campaigns and materials.
  3. WHO's page on World Immunization Week with archives to past campaigns and materials
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    WHO Global Vaccine Safety website

    WHO's global page on vaccine safety with links to: Global Vaccine Safety Global Vaccine Safety Initiative Detection Investigation Communication Tools and methods Regulatory framework Technical support and trainings Global analysis and response Public-private information exchange Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety Reference documents and publications In 2011, WHO and a group of partners developed a strategic document on vaccine safety called the Global Vaccine Safety Blueprint. This document sets out indicators that aim to ensure that all countries have at least a minimal capacity to ensure vaccine safety. The Blueprint proposes a strategic plan for strengthening vaccine safety activities globally. It focuses on building national capacity for vaccine safety in the world’s poorest countries through the coordinated efforts of major stakeholders.
  5. The VACCINATION online course was developed by SBIm in partnership with the Brazilian Ministry of Health for health professionals who work in Brazil public and private vaccination services. To date, more than 130,000 professionals started the course. Divided into modules, the course has duration of 80 hours and can be accessed until 31/12/2018. Certificate is provided for those with at least 75% share and minimum average in 70%. The main topics discussed are: vaccines and recommendations; Cold chain; Vaccination techniques; Vaccination routines.
  6. WHO Europe Flu Awareness campaign materials from 2017. Available in English and Russian. Poster - Protect yourself and your patients from influenza Poster - Influenza can be serious if you have a health problem Poster - Influenza can be serious if you are over 65 Poster - Influenza can be serious for you and your unborn child Leaflet - Protect yourself and your patients from influenza Leaflet - Influenza can be serious if you have a health problem Leaflet - Influenza can be serious if you are over 65 Leaflet - Influenza can be serious for you and your unborn child Download the full package of Flu Awareness Campaign 2017
  7. Vaccine Volume 36, Issue 35, 23 August 2018, Pages 5273-5281 Measuring vaccine hesitancy: Field testing the WHO SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy survey tool in Guatemala Author links open overlay panelGretchen J.DomekabSean T.O'LearyacSheanaBullbdMichaelBronsertbcIngrid L.Contreras-RoldaneGuillermo AntonioBolaños VenturafAllisonKempeacEdwin J.Asturiasabg https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.07.046Get rights and content Under a Creative Commons license open access Highlights • The Vaccine Hesitancy Survey (VHS) was field tested in urban and rural Guatemala. • Vaccine shortages and access in LMICs are important structural issues to consider. • Participants had difficulty understanding and using the Likert scale format. • Factor analysis showed a two-factor structure within the VHS Likert scale items. • More work is needed to refine this survey for improved global utility.
  8. Publication date: 15 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 43 Author(s): Anita Verma, Drusilla L. Burns AbstractDevelopment of recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccines has been hindered by a lack of stability of the vaccines associated with spontaneous deamidation of asparagine (Asn) residues of the rPA antigen during storage. In this study, we explored the role that two deamidation-prone Asn residues located directly adjacent to the receptor binding site of PA, Asn713 and Asn719, play in the stability of rPA-based anthrax vaccines. We modified these residues to glutamine (Gln) and generated rPA(N713Q/N719Q), since Gln would not be expected to deamidate on a time scale relevant to vaccine storage. While wild-type rPA vaccine formulated with aluminum hydroxide lost immunogenicity upon storage, as measured by induction of toxin-neutralizing antibodies in mice, the rPA(N713Q/N719Q) vaccine did not exhibit a significant loss in immunogenicity. This finding suggests that modification of Asn713 and Asn719 of rPA to deamidation-resistant amino acids may improve the stability of rPA-based anthrax vaccines. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  9. Publication date: 15 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 43 Author(s): Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Miria F. Criado, Charles L. Balzli, Lindsay F. Killmaster, Darrell R. Kapczynski, David E. Swayne AbstractMaternally-derived antibodies (MDA) provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with active immunity in young chicks. In highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV)-enzootic countries, broiler chickens typically have MDA to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and H5 HPAIV, and their impact on active immunity from recombinant vectored vaccines is unclear. We assessed the effectiveness of a spray-applied recombinant NDV vaccine with H5 AIV insert (rNDV-H5) and a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine with H5 AIV insert (rHVT-H5) in commercial broilers with MDA to NDV alone (MDA:AIV−NDV+) or to NDV plus AIV (MDA:AIV+NDV+) to provide protection against homologous HPAIV challenge. In Experiment 1, chicks were spray-vaccinated with rNDV-H5 at 3 weeks (3w) and challenged at 5 weeks (5w). All sham-vaccinated progeny lacked AIV antibodies and died following challenge. In rNDV-H5 vaccine groups, AIV and NDV MDA had completely declined to non-detectable levels by vaccination, enabling rNDV-H5 spray vaccine to elicit a protective AIV antibody response by 5w, with 70–78% survival and significant reduction of virus shedding compared to shams. In Experiment 2, progeny were vaccinated with rHVT-H5 and rNDV-H5 at 1 day (1d) or 3w and challenged at 5w. All sham-vaccinated progeny lacked AIV antibodies and died following challenge. In rHVT-H5(1d) vaccine groups, irrespective of rNDV-H5(3w) boost, AIV antibodies reached protective levels pre-challenge, as all progeny survived and virus shedding significantly decreased compared to shams. In contrast, rNDV-H5-vaccinated progeny had AIV and/or NDV MDA at the time of vaccination (1d and/or 3w) and failed to develop a protective immune response by 5w, resulting in 100% mortality after challenge. Our results demonstrate that MDA to AIV had minimal impact on the effectiveness of rHVT-H5, but MDA to AIV and/or NDV at the time of vaccination can prevent development of protective immunity from a primary or booster rNDV-H5 vaccine. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  10. Publication date: 22 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 44 Author(s): Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau, Marianne Promberger, Karis Moon, Ana Wheelock, Miroslav Sirota, Christine Norton, Nick Sevdalis AbstractHealthcare workers (HCWs) are an important priority group for vaccination against influenza, yet, flu vaccine uptake remains low among them. Psychosocial studies of HCWs’ decisions to get vaccinated have commonly drawn on subjective expected utility models to assess predictors of vaccination, assuming HCWs’ choices result from a rational information-weighing process. By contrast, we recast those decisions as a commitment to vaccination and we aimed to understand why HCWs may want to (rather than believe they need to) get vaccinated against the flu. This article outlines the development and validation of a 9-item measure of cognitive empowerment towards flu vaccination (MoVac-flu scale) and an 11-item measure of cognitive empowerment towards vaccination advocacy. Both scales were administered to 784 frontline NHS HCWs with direct patient contact between June 2014 and July 2015. The scales exhibited excellent reliability and a clear unidimensional factor structure. An examination of the nomological network of the cognitive empowerment construct in relation to HCWs’ vaccination against the flu revealed that this construct was distinct from traditional measures of risk perception and the strongest predictor of HCWs’ decisions to vaccinate. Similarly, cognitive empowerment in relation to vaccination advocacy was a strong predictor of HCWs’ engagement with vaccination advocacy. These findings suggest that the cognitive empowerment construct has important implications for advancing our understanding of HCWs’ decisions to vaccinate as well as their advocacy behavior. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  11. Publication date: 22 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 44 Author(s): Jessica Kaufman, Rebecca Ryan, Simon Lewin, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Claire Glenton, Julie Cliff, Angela Oyo-Ita, Artur Manuel Muloliwa, Afiong Oku, Heather Ames, Gabriel Rada, Yuri Cartier, Sophie Hill AbstractBackgroundCommunication interventions for childhood vaccination are promising strategies to address vaccine hesitancy, but current research is limited by the outcomes measured. Most studies measure only vaccination-related outcomes, with minimal consideration of vaccine hesitancy-relevant intermediate outcomes. This impedes understanding of which interventions or elements are effective. It is also unknown which outcomes are important to the range of stakeholders affected by vaccine hesitancy. Outcome selection shapes the evidence base, informing future interventions and trials, and should reflect stakeholder priorities. Therefore, our aim was to identify which outcome domains (i.e. broad outcome categories) are most important to different stakeholders, identifying preliminary core outcome domains to inform evaluation of three common vaccination communication types: (i) communication to inform or educate, (ii) remind or recall, and (iii) enhance community ownership. MethodsWe conducted a two-stage online Delphi survey, involving four stakeholder groups: parents or community members, healthcare providers, researchers, and government or non-governmental organisation representatives. Participants rated the importance of eight outcome domains for each of the three communication types. They also rated specific outcomes within one domain (“attitudes or beliefs”) and provided feedback about the survey. ResultsCollectively, stakeholder groups prioritised outcome domains differently when considering the effects of different communication types. For communication that aims to (i) inform or educate, the most important outcome domain is “knowledge or understanding”; for (ii) reminder communication, “vaccination status and behaviours”; and for (iii) community engagement communication, “community participation”. All stakeholder groups rated most outcome domains as very important or critical. The highest rated specific outcome within the “attitudes or beliefs” domain was “trust”. ConclusionThis Delphi survey expands the field of core outcomes research and identifies preliminary core outcome domains for measuring the effects of communication about childhood vaccination. The findings support the argument that vaccination communication is not a single homogenous intervention – it has a range of purposes, and vaccination communication evaluators should select outcomes accordingly. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  12. Publication date: 22 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 44 Author(s): Rachel Démolis, Carlos Botão, Léonard W. Heyerdahl, Bradford D. Gessner, Philippe Cavailler, Celestino Sinai, Amílcar Magaço, Jean-Bernard Le Gargasson, Martin Mengel, Elise Guillermet AbstractIntroductionWhile planning an immunization campaign in settings where public health interventions are subject to politically motivated resistance, designing context-based social mobilization strategies is critical to ensure community acceptability. In preparation for an Oral Cholera Vaccine campaign implemented in Nampula, Mozambique, in November 2016, we assessed potential barriers and levers for vaccine acceptability. MethodsQuestionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions, as well as observations, were conducted before the campaign. The participants included central and district level government informants (national immunization program, logistics officers, public health directors, and others), community leaders and representatives, and community members. ResultsDuring previous well chlorination interventions, some government representatives and health agents were attacked, because they were believed to be responsible for spreading cholera instead of purifying the wells. Politically motivated resistance to cholera interventions resurfaced when an OCV campaign was considered. Respondents also reported vaccine hesitancy related to experiences of problems during school-based vaccine introduction, rumors related to vaccine safety, and negative experiences following routine childhood immunization. Despite major suspicions associated with the OCV campaign, respondents’ perceived vulnerability to cholera and its perceived severity seem to override potential anticipated OCV vaccine hesitancy. DiscussionPotential hesitancy towards the OCV campaign is grounded in global insecurity, social disequilibrium, and perceived institutional negligence, which reinforces a representation of estrangement from the central government, triggering suspicions on its intentions in implementing the OCV campaign. Recommendations include a strong involvement of community leaders, which is important for successful social mobilization; representatives of different political parties should be equally involved in social mobilization efforts, before and during campaigns; and public health officials should promote other planned interventions to mitigate the lack of trust associated with perceived institutional negligence. Successful past initiatives include public intake of purified water or newly introduced medication by social mobilizers, teachers or credible leaders. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  13. Publication date: 22 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 44 Author(s): Leonard W. Heyerdahl, Bagrey Ngwira, Rachel Demolis, Gabriel Nyirenda, Maurice Mwesawina, Florentina Rafael, Philippe Cavailler, Jean Bernard Le Gargasson, Martin A. Mengel, Bradford D. Gessner, Elise Guillermet AbstractA reactive campaign using two doses of Shanchol Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) was implemented in 2016 in the Lake Chilwa Region (Malawi) targeting fish dependent communities. Three strategies for the second vaccine dose delivery (including delivery by a community leader and self-administration) were used to facilitate vaccine access. This assessment collected vaccine perceptions and opinions about the OCV campaign of 313 study participants, including: fishermen, fish traders, farmers, community leaders, and one health and one NGO officer. Socio-demographic surveys were conducted, In Depth Interviews and Focus Group Discussions were conducted before and during the campaign. Some fishermen perceived the traditional delivery strategy as reliable but less practical. Delivery by traditional leaders was acceptable for some participants while others worried about traditional leaders not being trained to deliver vaccines or beneficiaries taking doses on their own. A slight majority of beneficiaries considered the self-administration strategy practical while some beneficiaries worried about storing vials outside of the cold chain or losing vials. During the campaign, a majority of participants preferred receiving oral vaccines instead of injections given ease of intake and lack of pain. OCV was perceived as efficacious and safe. However, a lack of information on how sero-protection may be delayed and the degree of sero-protection led to loss of trust in vaccine potency among some participants who witnessed cholera cases among vaccinated individuals. OCV campaign implementation requires accompanying communication on protective levels, less than 100% vaccine efficacy, delays in onset of sero-protection, and out of cold chain storage. https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  14. Publication date: 22 October 2018 Source: Vaccine, Volume 36, Issue 44 Author(s): Angus Thomson, Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau, L. Suzanne Suggs https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine
  15. This is a web page by the American Academy of Pediatrics with guidance for healthcare providers for communication with vaccine hesitant parents . The page includes: Types of parental immunization attitudes Key points to consider Strategies for Talking to Parents Policies and Resources
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